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A importância e as etapas da depuração do equipamento?

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: 2022-10-05 15:40:54

1. The importance of equipment debugging

The importance of strict debugging is not only directly reflected in giving full play to the various performances of the system, but also the importance of: strict debugging can make the equipment work accurately in the best working state. In addition to paying attention to maintenance in the later use, the service life of the equipment can be extended a lot. Actual experience and investigation show that most of the equipment damaged within the normal range is caused by improper equipment debugging and maintenance. In a large number of projects, it is the engineering design and construction parties who actually have the most ability, conditions and debugging experience. It can be seen how important the debugging of equipment in the project is.

2. Steps of equipment debugging

Each system of professional audio engineering includes many types and quantities of equipment, the use of various equipment and the working mode of the system are not the same, so the equipment debugging of the system is also different. Here is an explanation of the general types of late-stage equipment debugging steps.

►The first is the preparation before debugging.
The debugging of audio engineering is a work that requires both technology and experience, as well as a serious and responsible spirit. When the design, selection, layout and construction meet the requirements, the debugging of equipment and systems is the only means to meet the design requirements. So make full preparations before debugging. These preparations include: preparing necessary instruments and tools, such as phase meters, noise generators, spectrum analyzers, sound pressure meters, and multimeters required for audio debugging. Prepare all engineering design and construction drawings, carefully read the installation and operating instructions of all equipment, and prepare the operating instructions of important or special equipment for backup. Another thing that needs to be prepared is that before the debugging work starts, it must be ensured that there are no irrelevant personnel on site to avoid interference with the debugging work.

►Secondly, check the installation and connection of the equipment according to the design and layout requirements.
Different from the construction steps of the project, the thinking of checking the installation and connection of the system and equipment in the equipment debugging stage is based on the outline of the entire system, and the purpose is to find problems, and it is easy to find problems. Therefore, it is necessary to check before debugging. At the same time, during the inspection process, ask the construction personnel whether there are any problems left in the construction process, and make sure that there is no problem with the power supply line and voltage.

►Then, set all the devices accordingly. For example, the settings of the audio system include: the voltage level of all equipment should be set to the power supply voltage, and one level should be as high as possible. The signal transmission level value of the system should be set as consistent as possible to ensure that the signal transmission reference point is the same. Does the amplifier work in stereo, parallel mono or bridge mono? Is the protection status set? Input transformer selection, etc. How is the frequency division of the speakers? Where is the high frequency attenuation located? The signal input attenuation of the mixer? Signal grouping situation? What is the gear selection of the peripheral equipment, whether it is bypassed, whether it is linked, whether it is activated, etc.

►The following is a separate operation check for each device in the system. The significance of this step is that, from the operation inspection of the individual equipment, we can gradually check the transmission of the signal and check the individual working condition of the equipment. Prepare for the normal operation of the system to achieve a better sound, light and image quality.In particular, the audio system has many devices, and the relationship between the devices is relatively close. The operation of a single device can focus on the level, gain, balance, phase and smoothness of the signal for more detailed, accurate and targeted adjustments. Ensure that the front-end equipment provides the best signal for the lower level, and finally make the signal condition of the system good; at the same time, the significance of the operation inspection of the equipment alone is that the operation of the individual equipment can clearly know whether all the equipment is working normally and stably. . Once there is a fault, it is more convenient to handle, and it will not endanger the safety of other equipment in the system, so you must be careful and patient when doing this step, and it is best not to bring this work to the next steps. It should be noted that it is best not to turn on the power amplifier and other equipment of the system at the same time when the equipment of the audio system runs alone, so as to avoid damage to the power amplifier and speakers due to failure.

►Then you can use all the equipment of the system together to debug the system as a whole. Since this work is the key to system debugging, we are divided into audio, lighting and video part.Then you can use all the equipment of the system together to debug the system as a whole. The following explains the debugging of the general audio system.

Debugging of the sound system.
First, connect the power amplifier and speakers to the system, turn on the power of the devices one by one, and after they work stably, connect to the phase meter, and at a lower volume, check whether the phase of all speakers is correct one by one.

Second, connect the noise generator and equalizer to the system, prepare the spectrum analyzer, set the spectrum analyzer in the corresponding place according to the relevant national hall sound reinforcement quality test requirements, and then amplify the pink noise signal at a moderate volume . In the audio range of 20-20kHz, finely adjust each frequency point of the equalizer. On the premise of keeping the volume the same, let the room frequency response curve displayed by the spectrum analyzer be basically flat at each test point. And record the position of each frequency point of the equalizer. Also, at low volume and rated volume, adjust the equalizer and record it. Finally, these recorded equalizer frequency points are compromised, and then the higher-level gear of the spectrum analyzer is used to test, and the frequency point position of the equalizer can be determined after proper correction. Note that when debugging the equalizer, the frequency equalization point of the mixer must be at 0, and other peripheral processing devices must be in a bypass state. In addition, taking into account the listening habits of ordinary people, it is possible to properly attenuate signals above 10k from the equalizer.

Third, connect the electronic frequency divider to the system for debugging. For crossovers that only divide the subwoofer, you can leave the bass system to work alone after the equalizer is tuned. Take the crossover point of the crossover at 150-300Hz, adjust the gain of the bass signal properly until you feel the volume is suitable, and then listen to it with the full-frequency system to balance the bass and full-frequency volume. For the crossover that divides the frequency of the full-frequency system, you must try to set the crossover point recommended by the speaker manufacturer as much as possible, and then repeatedly adjust the gain of the signal in each frequency band. After the listening sense is relatively balanced, you can further fine-tune the gain by referring to the sound pressure level test below.

Fourth, the measurement of sound pressure level. Also connect the pink noise meter to the sound reinforcement system, and select several test points to place the sound pressure meter just like debugging an equalizer. After adjusting all the settings of the sound system, finally turn on the equipment of the system and gradually increase the volume of the noise signal. It is required to adjust the gain of each device under the premise of ensuring the best state of the signal, so that the sound pressure of the system must meet the design requirements at each test point. At the same time, it is necessary to refer to the sound pressure level in the high, medium and low frequency bands, and then make some adjustments to the equalizer and crossover. Of course, the sound pressure levels of the high, medium and low frequency bands are not exactly the same. Generally, in order to consider the characteristics of the sense of hearing, it is necessary to reduce the high-frequency sound pressure level, and the low-frequency sound pressure level needs to be higher after the bass system of the DISCO system is turned on. When testing the sound pressure level, it is necessary to compare the sound pressure level of each test point. If the result of each point has a large deviation, it means that the uniformity of the sound field is not good, and it should be carefully analyzed and improved.

Fifth, debugging of microphones and effects. The debugging of microphones is generally carried out by classification. Wired microphones for vocals and musical instruments usually require the cooperation of daily users. When debugging, it is necessary to know the most reasonable microphone models and operating distances for each individual and each musical instrument. Adjust until the sound quality is good and there is no noticeable line noise. For wireless microphones, attention should be paid to: the position of the antenna should be reasonable, the blind spots and feedback points of the microphone should be small enough, and the position should be recorded in detail, the signal gain of the receiver should be appropriate, and the fine-tuning knob of noise suppression should be adjusted repeatedly. The debugging requirements for the effector are not strict, as long as the input and output gain of the signal are adjusted reasonably to ensure a certain margin, and the reverberation time and delay amount are limited to a certain range, so as not to affect the clarity of the language and the signal continuity. Other specific usage adjustments can be made by the operator himself.

Sixth, for the debugging of the pressure limiter, it is generally carried out after the debugging of other equipment is basically completed. In most projects, the role of the compressor is to protect the amplifier and speakers, and to keep the sound smooth. Therefore, it is necessary to first set the compression starting level based on the strength of the signal. Usually, the starting level should not be set too low, otherwise the sound quality of the system will be affected, but if the setting is too high, the protection will be lost. The time setting of the compression start should not be too long, so as not to make the protection action untimely, but too short will destroy the sound quality and produce strange sounds. In addition, the compression recovery time should not be too short, otherwise it will also produce strange sounds.The compression ratio is set at about 4:1 in general projects. When setting the noise gate on the compressor, you can do this: If there is no noise in the system, you can close the noise gate. If there is a certain amount of noise, the threshold level of the noise gate can be set at a relatively low position to avoid intermittent hiccups of the signal. If the noise of the system is large, it should be analyzed in the construction of the project, and the noise gate should not be used alone to solve it. In short, there is no specific standard for the debugging of the compressor. Various settings basically need to be determined according to the signal condition and sound quality, and repeated comparisons to find an optimal point.

The debugging of other equipment of the audio system will not be introduced one by one. In the specific engineering debugging, you should carefully read the design manual and product description, and adjust carefully and gradually. Under the premise of not destroying the sound field, various audio processing devices are selectively used to meet the design requirements.

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